Articles

Naegleria deaths: desired chlorine level not maintained

Despite tall claims about taking effective measures to keep Naegleria fowleri in check, the civic agencies concerned still have to do a lot of work to save precious lives since a large quantity of water supplied to the city is still shockingly unhealthy and prone to assist the growth of ‘brain-eating’ amoeba,

Water Supply and Sanitation in Pakistan

Drinking water supply and sanitation in Pakistan is characterized by some achievements and many challenges.

WHO guidelines for water contamination

This fourth edition of the World Health Organization’s Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality builds on over 50 years of guidance by WHO on drinking-water quality,

Methods of Water Purification

Water treatment can be defined as any procedure or method used to alter the chemical composition or natural "behavior" of a water supply.

Chlorine in Drinking Water

Exposure to chlorine, hypochlorous acid, and hypochlorite ion through ingestion of household bleach occurs most commonly in children.

Water supply and sanitation in Pakistan

Drinking water supply and sanitation in Pakistan is characterized by some achievements and many challenges. Despite high population growth the country has increased the share of the population with access to an improved water source from 85% in 1990 to 92% in 2010, although this does not necessarily mean that the water from these sources is safe to drink.

The share with access to improved sanitation increased from 27% to 48% during the same period, according to the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation.[9] There has also been considerable innovation at the grass-root level, in particular concerning sanitation. The Orangi Pilot Project in Karachi [10] and community-led total sanitation in rural areas are two examples of such innovation.

However, the sector still faces major challenges. The quality of the services is poor, as evidenced by intermittent water supply in urban areas and limited wastewater treatment. Poor drinking water quality and sanitation lead to major outbreaks of waterborne diseases.[11] major outbreaks of waterborne diseases swept the cities of Faisalabad, Karachi, Lahore and Peshawar in 2006.[11] Estimates indicate that each year, more than three million Pakistanis